Nutrition of martial artists in connection with the regulation of body weight
The regulation of body mass (or weight) is of constant interest to athletes – especially the very difficult problem of weight loss. Almost all martial artists gain weight in the pre-competition period.
Weight loss in any way is a serious, responsible and purely individual process, therefore it is necessary that the combatant is constantly under the supervision of a trainer and a doctor. The increased nervous excitability of the athlete during this period obliges the coach to be especially attentive to him.
To maintain health, it is important not only how many kilograms and in what way the weight is cut off, but also how it recovers at the end of the competition – it is unacceptable, for example, a sharp increase in weight in a short time.
To understand the mechanisms of body weight regulation in combat athletes, it is useful to know the general patterns of drawing up programs for its reduction.
In broad terms, the regulation of body weight provides for many factors – first of all, an increase in physical activity and a rational diet .
Experts give the following recommendations for a weight loss program:
- prolonged fasting and high calorie restriction diets are scientifically undesirable and can be hazardous to health. Fasting and low-calorie diets result in large losses of water , minerals , glycogen stores and other non-adipose tissue (including protein) with minimal fat loss;
- moderate restriction of caloric intake (by 500–1000 kcal in comparison with the usual daily intake) leads to lower losses of water and salts;
- Dynamic exercise of large muscle groups helps maintain muscle mass, maintain bone density, and lead to weight loss. As a result of an increase in energy expenditure, body weight is reduced due to fat;
- For weight loss, a balanced diet with moderate calorie restriction is recommended , combined with exercise programs to increase endurance , as well as changes in eating habits. Weekly weight loss should not exceed 1 kg;
- To maintain proper body weight and optimal fat content, it is necessary to develop rational habits, which positively affects life expectancy.
Exercise is considered to be an effective method of preventing obesity. Analysis of most studies shows that regular physical activity leads to a moderate decrease in total body weight, a decrease in body fat mass from moderate to significant) and an increase (from slight to moderate) in muscle. The amount of food intake increases disproportionately to the increase in energy expenditure. Consequently, physical training is of great importance for the regulation of body weight, not only due to a direct increase in energy consumption during physical work, but also due to the development of the so-called appetite-reducing effect.
However, it should be emphasized that the most effective measure for the prevention of overweight is a combination of an increased level of physical activity with a decrease in the caloric content of the diet.
Body weight of a combatant
The weight or weight of an athlete’s body should be classified as one of the parameters essential for most combat sports , since there is a fairly stable direct relationship between it and the absolute strength of a person.
With the introduction of weight categories, combatants began to look for a way to victory not only through hard training, but also by moving to a lighter category. At the same time, the temptation to be much stronger than their rivals (due to weight loss) is so great that no athlete can neglect this procedure.
In fact, weight loss, starting from the very first competitions, becomes almost an obligatory attribute of combat sports. In this regard, almost all athletes and coaches have their own opinion about how quickly and without loss of skill should lose those extra pounds.
It is more difficult to do this with insufficient training . According to some studies, a decrease in body weight of up to 13% does not cause significant changes in the functional state and muscle performance. Such a reduction in body weight is permissible, but no more than 3 times a year.
A significant decrease in body weight – more than 10% – leads to serious consequences. You should refrain from such a weight reduction, and in case of urgent need to resort to it no more than 1 time per year.
Observations of the weight regime of combatants are of great practical importance. Weight loss in one training session (all other things being equal) depends mainly on the size of the subcutaneous fat layer and the water-salt balance. Usually, there is more weight loss per workout in the preparatory period; in the future, as fitness increases, they stabilize.
Thus, dynamic observations of not only body weight at rest are important, but also its losses during training, which can serve as one of the criteria of athletes’ fitness.
The decrease in body weight for perspiration (its imperceptible loss) is per day: through the respiratory system – 138-468 g; through the skin – 0.45-1.9 kg. The standard value for body weight loss by perspiration is 23 g per hour per 1 m² of body surface. After leaving the bath, 50 g of water remains on the body of a person with a pronounced hairline, and in the absence of such – 30 g. With profuse sweating, the body contains about 40 g of sweat; underwear can absorb up to 150g.
Unjustifiably high expenditures of physical strength are observed in those combatants who, during the competition, do not monitor their body weight and are forced to adjust it immediately before weighing. Meanwhile, this is easy to avoid: you just need to check the weight before eating and, taking into account the individual characteristics of the body, adhere to a certain diet and fluid intake.
The athlete should know how much mass he “burns” during the night – both under normal conditions and during the cut. In this case, you should go to bed with the following body weight: control plus weight that “burns” during the night during the cut, minus 100 g. These grams are safety and also have a calming effect on the athlete so as not to worry before the upcoming control weighing.
Psychophysiological features of weight loss
All types of martial arts are characterized by non-standard cyclic movements of variable intensity associated with the use of large muscular efforts while actively opposing an opponent. The power of work during a competitive fight can be assessed as submaximal.
Short-term high-speed-power stresses during technical techniques (for example, grips) are accompanied by elements of straining and holding the breath. Repeated fights in a tournament require athletes to have an optimal ratio of aerobic and anaerobic performance (in accordance with body weight, type of martial arts and tactical and technical capabilities).
Changes in diet and diet (along with other factors) are noticeably reflected in the energy supply of muscle activity in athletes who lose weight. The restructuring of metabolic processes leads to pronounced changes in the ratio of the main sources of energy supply for muscle activity – carbohydrates and lipids. As shown by the studies cited by experts, even before the start of physical activity, there is a deficiency of carbohydrates – the main source of energy. This is also accompanied by a decrease in blood sugar levels during standard exercise.
Forced weight loss leads to earlier lipid mobilization. At the same time, there is a decrease in the content of free fatty acids in the blood – the main supplier of energy during lipid oxidation .
Decreased levels of glycogen , glucose and free fatty acids indicate a decrease in the energy potential of the athlete’s body, losing weight.
Microscopy of liver sections (in an experiment on animals) against the background of a decrease in glycogen content shows a picture of fatty degeneration, which reduces the functionality of this organ. This is also indicated by a decrease in the enzymatic activity of the liver.
An increase in the body (with a forced decrease in body weight) in the level of ketone bodies, which worsen the course of redox processes, as well as the content of organic acids in the blood, indicates an increasing oxygen deficiency in the tissues. In this regard, physical activity during forced weight loss should be more aerobic in nature, and short-term high-intensity work should be alternated with sufficient rest periods. In this case, it is necessary to reduce physical actr depletion of the body.
Neglect of these requirements leads to overstrain of the body.
Forced weight loss by insufficiently trained athletes negatively affects health, sports longevity and performance.
In adolescence, weight loss is prohibited, since during this period fat reserves are small and weight loss is carried out at the expense of muscle tissue.
With artificial dehydration of the body, muscle strength decreases, speed qualities decrease . Losing weight also has a detrimental effect on the state of the nervous system.
As a rule, the most intense training takes place on the last days or the day before the official weigh-in, with the youngest or lightest wrestlers losing the largest percentage of weight. Weight reduction is repeated many times, since participation in competitions is 15 to 30 times a year. For wrestlers in the weight category up to 96 kg, the fat content is 1.6-15.1% of body weight – on average, about 8%. Weight loss is carried out by limiting the amount of food and liquid consumed, as well as by sweating during heat or physical exertion. Studies have shown that in the process of losing weight, not only water is lost, but also fats and proteins. As a result of a combination of different cutting procedures, the following changes are usually observed:
- muscle strength decreases ;
- the time for maintaining high performance is reduced ;
- the volume of blood and plasma decreases;
- cardiac function worsens with submaximal relative power; associated with this is an increase in pulse rate, a decrease in stroke and minute blood volumes ;
- oxygen consumption decreases – especially during fasting ;
- thermoregulation processes are disrupted;
- decreased renal blood flow;
- the reserves of glycogen in the liver decrease;
- the loss of electrolytes increases.
If there are appropriate opportunities, preference should be given to a gradual decrease in body weight, in which changes in metabolic processes are expressed to a much lesser extent and, therefore, there are fewer restrictions on the dosage of physical activity.
For the correction of body weight, special products have been created – ” fat burners “, which contain energy metabolites, as well as carnitine , which promotes the breakdown of fat.
Of all the components, water is the most mobile. Normally, its content in an adult is 60–70% of body weight.
The other component, fat, is much more difficult to reduce under the influence of methods that regulate body weight.
With any method of weight loss in the body of an athlete, dehydration occurs to one degree or another , that is, dehydration.
The least negative effect on the body has a long-term (citomed) and gradual restriction of the water-food diet. This way of regulating body weight provides the greatest weight loss. The most favorable ratio of the loss of individual body components is created: less water (with the corresponding percentage of weight loss) and more fat. There is a weaker effect of this method on hematological parameters and maximum heart rate.
The effectiveness of weight loss depends not only on the course of physiological processes, but also, to a large extent, on the influence of psychological factors that affect not only the functional state of the body and the course of metabolic processes, but also the success of performing sports loads.
Since the functional state of the athlete – “rider” affects the psyche, a complex of interdependent physiological and psychological processes is created, for the correction of which the coach-teacher needs to know how the process of weight loss affects the psyche of athletes.
A slight voluntary decrease in body weight (within 1.0–1.5 kg) has a favorable effect on the athlete’s mood and well-being, and improves mental performance . Excessive (especially forced) weight loss negatively affects the psyche: lethargy, headache , insomnia may occur . Some have increased irritability; others, on the contrary, are characterized by a depressed state of mind, passivity, apathy, anxiety, anxiety. There is a reluctance to perform loads of large volume and intensity, the motivation for achieving victory decreases, pain qualities worsen, etc.
The process of weight reduction requires constant overcoming of a number of objective and subjective difficulties, therefore it has a pronounced volitional orientation and is characterized by an internal attitude towards the constant use of volitional efforts and self-action.
In the process of weight reduction under the guidance of a coach-teacher and a doctor, the athlete must:
- get and understand for yourself the necessary information about the mechanisms of weight loss;
- develop for yourself a stable mindset to achieve the planned weight and overcome the difficulties that arise;
- apply self-regulatory influences;
- independently control the change in weight and the current state of the body (physical and mental).
When developing a mindset to achieve the planned weight, the athlete must convince himself that weight reduction is an absolutely necessary procedure for his successful performance, which will help to improve his performance, speed of reaction, etc. The coach should help the athlete to “feel” these positive changes in the corresponding exercises …
For the formation and consolidation of the mindset for weight loss, procedures are recommended to achieve a state of relaxation. They provide for the adoption of certain postures (lying, sitting or reclining), distraction from any external and internal stimuli, the creation of a state of rest, sensations of heaviness. Heat and muscle relaxation.
In the achieved state, the athlete must figuratively imagine how, being in a steam room and sweating, weight is successfully reduced; how pleasant and useful it is to restrict food and fluid intake; how easy it is to fight or box, being more “dry” and mobile.
It is also necessary for every qualified combatant to develop a “sense of weight”, which allows many athletes to determine its value with great accuracy and regulate it during the competition (especially on the road). This “feeling” can be developed by systematically setting the self-esteem of weight (with normal health) with weighing data – at rest, at different times of the day, immediately before and after training.
“Sense of weight” to a large extent reflects the level of qualification, and among elite athletes it also reflects the level of their training .
Psychotherapy, psycho-muscular training, measures to regulate sleep (electrosleep, sedatives) are of great importance in the development of this “feeling”.
Means and methods of body weight regulation
Long-term experience of leading wrestlers (and representatives of other types of martial arts) indicates that weight cutting is a laborious and complex process, where everyone is looking for the best option for themselves: how many athletes cutting weight, there are so many methods for cutting it.
In practice, there are several ways to cut weight, but the main ones are:
- doing physical exercise;
- reducing the amount and reducing the calorie content of food consumed;
- reducing the amount of fluid and salt consumed;
- steam bath, thermal bath.
Experience shows that it is most rational to use a combination of food and water-salt regimes with physical exercises, and, if necessary, with a steam bath.
Weight loss methods
Experts recommend the following methods of weight loss:
- uniform – every day, throughout the entire period of cutting, the same number of kilograms is dropped;
- shock (forcedly dispersed) – during the first two days, the athlete reduces 40-50% of body weight – to the value necessary for competing. In the following days, the value of the loss of body weight gradually decreases – until the day of the official weigh-in;
- gradually increasing – every day the loss of body weight increases;
- interval – in the initial period of the elimination process, the athlete forcibly reduces the weight (by 1-3 kg), and then tries to keep it at the achieved level for several days; then again forcibly drives a certain body weight, etc .;
- wavy – against the background of a gradual decrease in body weight, the athlete admits its moderate increase for some time;
- forced – the required body weight is reduced on the eve or on the day of the start.
Athletes who lose 5–9% of body weight are better off using a steady and gradually increasing method. With a reduction in body weight over 9%, forced dispersed, interval and wave-like methods are more effective.
A slightly smaller number of methods for reducing body weight are recommended by another group of specialists:
- Forced method – weight loss occurs 2-4 days before the competition – mainly due to the bath procedure, a sharp restriction of the diet and drinking regimen.
- However, the athletes who used this method complained of hunger, thirst, fatigue, sweating, depressed mood, decreased performance, and excessive excitement of the nervous system.
- Long-term method – body weight is reduced for 1–2 months or more due to the training regimen and slight restriction of the diet.
- This method also tires the athlete, depressing the nervous system, making the “rider” unnecessarily irritable.
- Medium method – the time interval for weight loss is intermediate in comparison with the above methods.
- This method allows you to mitigate the phenomenon of severe dehydration of the body and restriction of nutrition, long-term lack of diet. It is also called “rational” .
When using the “rational” method, the following periods are distinguished :
- preparatory (duration – 2 days, meals 3-4 times a day). During this period, you need a slight restriction in the diet of side dishes, flour products and the consumption of mineral water;
- period of weight reduction (duration 10 days). There are three sub-periods in it:
- initial (duration – 2 days, meals 3 times a day); lack of side dishes in the diet, reducing the consumption of mineral water by 50%;
- main (duration – 7 days, meals 2 times a day); lack of side dishes in the diet, consumption of mineral water – 750 g per day;
- final – alternation of rations of the initial and main sub-periods.
Here the athlete must ensure that the weight does not increase or decrease below the limits of the desired weight category.
Forced weight loss
Forced weight loss was initially practiced in professional sports ( boxing , wrestling , equestrian sports) for purely tactical reasons. In those sports where there are weight categories, it is most beneficial to be at the upper end of the weight range. For this purpose, procedures have long been used to remove excess fluid from the body: steam bath, dry-air, thermal procedures ( sauna , light- thermal bath), training in warm clothes, limiting fluid intake, as well as reducing the calorie content of food.
Soon, weight reduction began to be used in amateur sports, as well as long-term weight management (mainly in women’s gymnastics , figure skating , ballet, equestrian sports).
However, nowadays more and more objections are heard against forced weight loss in amateur sports. Weight-cutting is believed to be incompatible with sports ethics as athletes compete in different conditions. In addition, current research shows that forced weight loss and inadvertent body weight regulation are far from harmless.
Rippers find it difficult to accept new methods, as they are confident in the correctness of their approach to this process. However, there are no ready-made recipes here – you need to learn to use individually suitable means and improve your method of weight loss.
Experience shows: in order to slightly reduce the weight (up to 2-3 kg), it is enough to reduce and reduce the amount of food consumed, as well as the amount of fluid and salt consumed 2-4 days before the start of the competition. On the eve of the competition, you can take a steam bath.
With a significant decrease in weight, it is necessary to establish such a diet and intake of fluid and salt so that the athlete can lose 1.5-2 kg 15-20 days before the competition. This weight is usually lost easily; the athlete does not experience great difficulties in observing the established regime and his body relatively easily and quickly adapts to the new weight. A martial arts athlete should begin to reduce the remaining excess weight approximately 7-10 days before the start of the competition and lose it gradually – by performing various physical exercises, reducing the amount of food, liquid and salt consumed.
Planning the diet of the “rider”
When losing weight, the diet should be:
- sufficiently high in calories, i.e., with a low weight and volume of food, contain a relatively large amount of calories and a sufficient amount of protein ;
- lightly salted, without harsh seasonings and not very sweet, so that after eating a meal, there is no feeling of thirst.
When regulating body weight, the nutrition of athletes is characterized by a high consumption of animal proteins and the inclusion of carbohydrates (in the form of monosaccharides ) in the diet . Food restriction – mainly by reducing fluids, fats and polysaccharides . The specificity of sports and energy expenditures per day are taken into account.
With a decrease in body weight, the calorie content of food decreases in comparison with the corresponding energy consumption. The calorie content can be reduced to 1800–2000 kcal with a daily ration of no more than 1–1.8 kg.
Caloric content is gradually reduced to 30–45 kcal per 1 kg of body weight per day (2.2–2.5 g of proteins, 1–2 g of fat and 4–4.5 g of carbohydrates). The amount of fat can be reduced to even lower numbers when using vegetable oil at least 10-15 g per day.
A decrease in the content of vegetable fats in the diet, especially with an intense training regimen, can lead to liver dystrophy.
With a moderately accelerated decrease in body weight (3% in 48 hours), the consumption of proteins is reduced by 17.4%, fat – by 27.3% and carbohydrates – by 31.6%. With an intensive distillation mode (5% in 48 hours), the total amount of fats and proteins is reduced by 2.5 times compared with the usual diet, and fats and proteins of plant origin – by 4 and 6.6 times, respectively.
In the first days of the transition to a restrictive diet, the volume of the first course (up to 200 g), the consumption of side dishes containing carbohydrates (potatoes, pasta, porridge ), and bread are reduced .
The diet includes foods such as lean meats , chicken, fresh lean fish, cottage cheese , raw vegetables, fruits , sugar, honey.
For the prevention of intestinal disorders ( constipation ), products containing fiber , which are found in vegetables and fruits (apples, prunes), should not be completely excluded . Kefir is also useful (up to 100 g).
With continued observance of restrictive diets once every 7-12 days, a wave-like method is used – days with more abundant nutrition to the taste of the athlete.
A salt-free diet is used only at the first stage of weight regulation, for 1-2 days, with low training loads and maintaining the usual rates of fluid intake.
Restriction of the drinking regime , especially in the early days, can cause an increase in nervous excitability and thirst.
If an athlete does not have dental caries, diseases of the oral mucosa and gastrointestinal disorders, if he does not use hot spices, alcohol, herring, then you can get rid of the feeling of thirst by rinsing your mouth with acidified water and using sour candies, mint bedding, etc. …
Carbohydrate food contributes to the retention of water in the body, dairy-plant food – its excretion. In the process of oxidation of nutrients, water is formed: during the oxidation of 100 g of carbohydrates – 55 g of water, 100 g of fats – 110 g, 100 g of proteins – 41 g.
If you are thirsty, caused by water restriction and exercise with a heavy load, as well as with profuse sweating, you need to consume water and table salt in individual dosages. With excessive, abundant water consumption against the background of preliminary fluid restriction, health disorders may occur: water intoxication, edema, muscle cramps, decreased performance.
Thirst is well removed by carbonated water (it is not recommended to take it during the competition), dried sour-salted cottage cheese, bread kvass, tomato juice with salt, vegetable juices, tea (especially green).
To normalize metabolism and prevent adverse changes in the body, you can use glucose , choline , methionine , vitamin B15, saturated fatty acids.
To increase efficiency and accelerate recovery during artificial weight loss, it is recommended to use various vitamin preparations and complexes of pharmacological compounds, as well as products of increased biological value.
Pharmacological agents can be classified into the following groups:
- drugs that enhance protein synthesis and energy processes ( inosine , potassium orotate );
- energy drugs ( carnitine , panangin, glutamic acid , calcium glycerophosphate, calcium lectate, lecithin , aminalon );
- adaptogenic drugs ( eleutherococcus , saparal, politabs);
- hematopoietic stimulants ( iron in the form of various salts).
Anabolic drugs are classified as doping . A certain combination of various means is necessary – depending on the need to regulate the physiological functions of the athlete’s body.
During the period of the most intense loads, the following can be used:
- calcium pantothenate – 1 tablet (0.1 g) per day;
- linoic acid – 1 tablet (25 mg) per day (along with calcium pantothenic acid);
- nicotinamide – 1 tablet (25 mg) per day (along with linoic acid and calcium pantothenate);
- thiamine (bromide or chloride) – 1 tablet (5 mg) per day (can be replaced with cocarboxylose);
- ascorbic acid – 0.5 g 2-4 times a day;
- pangamic acid – 1 tablet 3 times a day (a week before leaving for the midlands and when training in the mountains);
- vitamin E – 50-100 mg per day (when training in mid-altitude mountains, as well as in winter).
Restricting food and liquid intake, even very drastic, should not be carried out at the expense of a complete rejection of any products (for example, table salt), as this can cause functional disorders.
The food ration of the “rider” should include such products as lean meat (preferably beef tenderloin, chicken), fish, vegetables, fruits, juices. Every day a wrestler needs to consume 150-200 g of sugar. Along with these products, we recommend: granular caviar, eggs boiled in a “bag”, mild cheese, butter, cottage cheese and sour cream, as well as small quantities of rye bread. Vegetable (green peas, cabbage) and cereal (buckwheat, rolled oats) side dishes. Essential for the normalization of digestion.
The normal functioning of the intestines during the period of weight loss is facilitated by such a natural laxative as dry prunes. You can also use special herbal infusions.
You cannot completely abandon the use of first courses for a long time. It is good if the wrestler daily (or at least every other day) consumes 150-200 g of meat broth.
It is necessary to accustom yourself to drinking a small amount of liquid. Reducing its consumption is easier if the wrestler refuses salty and spicy foods.
It is known that 1 ml of water is required for 1 kcal of the diet. In many sports, its consumption reaches 4–5 liters per day. This includes teas, soups, mineral water, fruit and vegetable juices, and liquids found in solid foods. You need to know that vegetables and fruits contain about 90% water, milk – 87%, fish and meat – 70-80%, etc.
In addition, one should take into account the metabolic water that is formed during the combustion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates (300–500 ml, depending on the caloric content of the daily diet). A significant amount of water is formed during lipid oxidation.
Meals after weighing
After the wrestler has passed the official weigh-in, he needs to eat immediately (but this does not mean that he needs to rush while eating) so that a significant part of the food has time to be absorbed by the beginning of the fight.
Food should be low-volume (600-1200 g), but high-calorie and easily digestible. For example, a glass of hot sweet tea with lemon, a piece of meat (100-120 g) or 2-3 eggs boiled in a “bag”, a sandwich with granular caviar (20-30 g), butter (15-20 g), a glass fresh fruit juice (preferably grape) or fresh fruit (oranges, apples, pears; 200-250 g). Table salt is used with appropriate foods to taste.
If weighing was preceded by lunch, then it is good to drink 150-200 g of strong meat or chicken broth.
The shorter the time interval between food intake and the beginning of the next weighing, the less work the athlete has to perform in terms of volume and intensity, the less food he should consume. Consequently, the amount of food consumed in the morning and evening will usually be different.
Analysis of Forced Weight Loss
The study of the peculiarities of the diet and energy supply of muscle activity creates the prerequisites for reasoned recommendations to athletes who lose weight. The peculiarities of the diet were studied by direct observation of the individual menu of athletes during the pre-competition training camp, as well as by means of questionnaires. Wrestlers of the highest qualification indicated in the questionnaires their food ration at different intensity regimes of weight loss.
It turned out that forced weight loss was combined with significant changes in the diet of athletes.
So, with a moderate weight loss (3% in 48 hours), a diet is used with a decrease in the calorie content of food (from 71.4 to 36.5 kcal per 1 kg of weight) and its total amount (from 38.5 to 26 g per 1 kg of weight). ); with an intense weight loss (5% in 48 hours), the calorie content of food is 15–17% higher than the decrease in its amount.
Forced weight loss can lead to fatty liver degeneration. To slow down this process, it is necessary to take lipotropic substances, including unsaturated fatty acids contained in significant quantities in vegetable fats (vegetable oils), a sharp decrease in which was revealed when studying the diet of “scavengers”.
It should also be noted that when the body is dehydrated, the acidity of its internal environment increases. To compensate for the acidosis developing during the forced reduction of body weight, it is necessary to use sodium bicarbonate, alkaline mineral waters and other alkalizing agents .
General recommendations for cooking
Recipes for Weight Management
Beef and chicken should be lean, without excess fat deposits, and fresh. Particular attention should be paid to the freshness of the fish.
Fried (the tastiest) foods are the least healthy. Try to include boiled, stewed, steamed dishes in your diet, as well as a large number of salads from vegetables and fruits.
You can suggest the following recommendations for combining products:
- thoroughly mix raw eggs with sour cream and sugar: eggs – 2 pcs., sour cream – 100 g, sugar – 50 g.
- mix cottage cheese with fruit juice before use;
- put oil in hot tea or coffee.
When preparing meals, give preference to sour cream over butter. Use less sugar. Prepare sweet dishes with jam or honey. Raisins and dried fruits greatly contribute to the improvement of taste.
In most cases, salt can be replaced with spices.
Legumes are healthy and nutritious, but unfortunately not everyone likes them. If you do not mind peas, beans or lentils, try boiling them into porridge (5-6 glasses of water for 1 cup of legumes), add spices and season with sunflower oil or sour cream on a plate.
If you’re worried about gassing, drain the water you’ve soaked in peas or beans, legumes are an alternative protein source and one way to add variety to your menu.
Examples of several recipes
Pea soup (for 6 servings). Take 1.5-2 cups of split peas, pour 2 cups of warm water and leave for 1-2 hours until all the water is absorbed and the peas swell. Pour in another 8 glasses of water, bring to a boil and cook for 30 minutes. Then add, cut into small pieces, 1 medium carrot, 1 onion, bay leaf, spices (oil, red pepper) and cook until tender. For 10 minutes removing from the stove, you can add 1 glass of noodles – then the soup will be very thick. Salt to taste.
If you take less water (5 glasses), you get a thick pea porridge, which can be seasoned with sour cream, ketchup or sunflower oil. Meat eaters can boil pea soup in broth or season it with finely chopped lean meats. However, the broth must be undersalted – otherwise the soup will be very salty due to the boiling off of the water. In addition, very harmful purine bases pass into the broth from the bones. So you should limit yourself to adding meat to the soup (cook finely chopped boneless meat separately for about 1.5 hours; then drain the broth, add chopped peas, add water and cook as indicated above).
Bean salad. Boil 1.5 cups of beans, previously soaked in water (overnight), until soft. Add 1 cucumber, 1 apple, 1 small onion, 1 hard-boiled egg, diced parsley, some pepper. Season with 200 g of sour cream.
Fruit salad with cottage cheese. Grind 250 g of cottage cheese (preferably dietary) and 150 g of cream; you can add a little honey. Soak 100 g of raisins in warm water, let it swell and then dry. Cut 1 apple into pieces, add 200 g of cherries, remove seeds from the berries (instead of cherries, you can take plums, strawberries, other berries). Mix everything with cottage cheese and put in a salad bowl. Decorate with fruits and berries.
Oat milk jelly. Dissolve 100 g of oatmeal in 2 glasses of milk. As soon as the flakes swell, drain the liquid through a sieve, add 1 tbsp. spoon of starch and cook until thickened, stirring constantly. You can add honey.
Meat in broth with onions : meat – 130 g; onions – 50 g; salt – 30 g; water – 200 g. Boil the meat with onions and finely chopped pieces of bacon. As soon as the meat is cooked, remove it from the broth, chop it finely and put it back. After 5-6 minutes, the meat with the broth is ready. Oil (50 g) is added before use.
Meat juice . Chop 1 kg of meat and add seasoning to taste. Then put the meat in a bottle, cork it and put it in boiling water for 3-4 hours. Then strain – you get about 200 g of juice. Drink hot.
The regulation of body weight means not only its reduction, but also a set in certain periods of the educational and training process. In this case, the following recipes can be used.
Fruit drink . Take ½ cup canned pineapple chunks, 6 tbsp. spoons of some protein-carbohydrate mixture for mass gain; ½ teaspoon orange concentrate (or orange slice), 2 cups milk, 3 ice cubes. Beat until smooth and foamy.
Instead of protein, you can use powdered milk (better than Russian-made milk – it tastes better and is not thoroughly purified, which reduces the content of nutrients).
Mass Gain Mix . Dissolve 200 g of cottage cheese, 50 g of honey, 5 eggs (or 60–70 g of egg powder) in 1 glass of milk. You can add a little sour cream (50-100 g). Then beat and drink.
Breakfast option . Take 10-30 g of whole wheat flour, 3-5 tbsp. spoons of water, 1-2 tbsp. tablespoons of lemon juice, 15 g of dried fruits (figs, raisins, dried apricots, dates), 100 g of fresh berries or fruits, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of almonds or nuts. In the evening, stir the flour in water and leave until morning. In another vessel, soak finely chopped dried fruits in water. Overnight flour will turn into a hard dough, and dried fruits into a kind of thick compote. In the morning, mix the contents of both vessels, add lemon juice, fresh fruit (chopped or grated) or berries, sprinkle with nuts or almonds. The result is a delicious and nutritious breakfast.
Diet for building muscle mass and increasing strength (can be used by wrestlers and boxers also in the off-season; M.V. Aranson, 2001).
- First meal (8:00): 4-egg omelet with cheese; toast of bread with bran, buttered; fresh fruits; a glass of low-fat milk; nutritional supplements.
- Meal 2 (10:30): Protein shake.
- Meal 3 (13:00): sandwich with fish salad or boiled meat; fresh fruits; a glass of milk; nutritional supplements.
- Meal 4 (15:30): protein shake.
- Meal 5 (19:00): Red meat or poultry rice or baked potatoes; salad; tea or iced coffee; nutritional supplements.
- Meal 6 (21:30): ham; hard boiled eggs; cheese; nuts.